Submission of an article implies that the work described has not yet been published (except in the form of an abstract, a published paper or an academic paper). The submitting author must ensure that all eligible co-authors have been included in the author list and that they have all read and approved the submitted version of the manuscript. The manuscript may not be published in English or any other language, including electronically, in the same form without the written consent of the copyright holder.


Authors who wish to use figures, tables, or text passages that have been published elsewhere must obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) for both print and online formats and provide proof that such permission has been granted when submitting their articles. Material submitted without such proof will be assumed to originate with the authors.

Source Files

Please ensure that you provide all relevant editable source files with each submission and revision. Failing to submit a complete set of editable source files will result in your article not being considered for review.

Accepted File Formats

Please always submit your manuscript text in common word processing formats such as .docx or LaTeX. Using the template file will substantially shorten the time to complete copy-editing and publication of accepted manuscripts. If this is a problem, please contact the editorial   

Accepted file formats are:   -  Word template                       -    LaTeX template

Title Page

  • Title: The title should be concise, informative, and describe the subject topic of the manuscript in terms that can be understood by a wide readership. Non-standard acronyms or abbreviations should be avoided. The title should be in sentence case, bold and centered (20pt, Bold).
  • Authors: includes the names of all authors and their full postal and e-mail addresses. The author names are capitalized each word, 14 points, and centered below the title.
  • Author affiliation: Affiliated institutions must be listed directly under the authors’ names. Include department, institution, and full address for each author. Multiple affiliations should be indicated with superscript Arabic numbers, and each should begin on a new line. (10pt, capitalized each word, italic)
  • Corresponding author: name, full address, telephone number, and e-mail address of the author to whom correspondence and proofs should be sent. The name of the corresponding author should be marked with an asterisk (*). The mailing and e-mail addresses will be appeared in the printed edition and online.

For authors who are (temporarily) not affiliated, we collect only their place of residence and country but not their e-mail address unless specifically requested.


The abstract should be written in Times New Roman 10pt, fully justified and should not include references, figures, or tables. In the abstract, you should briefly state the purpose of the research, the main results and the main conclusions. Please prepare an abstract of approximately 150 to 250 words.


Provide a maximum of 8 keywords immediately following the summary. Use American spelling and avoid general and plural terms as well as multiple words (e.g., avoid 'and', 'of'). Use abbreviations sparingly: Only abbreviations that are well- established in the subject area should be considered. These keywords will be used for indexing. The keywords are written in Times New Roman 11pt and italic.

Text Formatting

  • Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 10-points, Times Roman) for the text.
  • Use italics for emphasis.
  • Use the automatic page numbering feature to number the pages.
  • Do not use field functions.
  • Use tab stops or other commands for indents, not the space bar.
  • Please submit mathematical equations as editable text, not images. Use the equation editor or MathType for equations. Number all equations that need to be displayed separately from the text consecutively (if referred to explicitly in the text).
  • Save your file in docx format (Word 2007 or later) or doc format (older versions of Word).


Please use the decimal system for headings with no more than three levels. Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in the section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-references: Do not simply refer to 'the text'. Each subsection can be given a brief heading. Each heading should be on a separate line. First level headings are in all caps, 11.5 points, and aligned to the left.


Acknowledgments for individuals, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section on the title page. The names of the funding organizations should be given in full.

Manuscript organization

The text should be single-spaced and page numbered to facilitate the review process and should be organized as follows:

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Materials and methods, including if appropriate an area description, quality assurances etc.
  • Results & Discussion
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements (if appropriate)
  • References
  • Tables
  • Figure Captions


All manuscripts must be clearly written in English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture thereof).

Non-English speaking authors who do not have a good command of scientific English are requested to contact someone whose native language is English or engage a professional language editing service before submission.

Important NOTE: Manuscripts may be rejected by the Editorial Board without review if they exhibit poor English or are unsuitable for the journal because they do not achieve an acceptable level of quality, are outside the scientific aims and scope of the journal or contain evidence of scientific fraud.


References must be numbered as they appear in the manuscript ([1], [2,3], [4-8] etc.) and should appear in numerical order in the reference section. The list of references should include only papers that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished work should be mentioned only in the text. References should be compiled at the end of the article in the order of citation in the text, not
in alphabetical order. References must contain sufficient information to allow a reader to find the referenced publication. With electronic linking of references to the publications themselves now possible, consistent styling of references is especially important. The required format for references is as follows.

Journal Articles

Author, article title, abbreviation of journal title, volume number, year (unless given after author’s name), page numbers or article number, DOI. (10 points)


Author, chapter title if applicable, “in” book title, abbreviated series title (if indicated), series volume (if indicated), editor(s), publisher, city, state (in most cases), year, page numbers if chapter title is given, DOI.


Author, title, “Ph.D. thesis” (or other wording as supplied), university, location, year

Unpublished Works: Reports, Preprints, Manuscripts

Author, title, report or preprint number (if applicable), university or other institution, location, year


Used when the publication is originally in a foreign language but the reference provides the title in English.

Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see


Tables and figures

  • Figures and tables should be centered. Both figure and table captions should be written in Times New Roman and numbered consecutively with Arabic numbers.
  • All tables should be numbered with Arabic numerals.
  • Tables should always be cited in the text in consecutive numerical order.
  • For each table, please provide a table caption (title) explaining the components of the table. It is always placed above the table, centered if shorter than one line, beginning with a paragraph indent if longer. Both figure and table captions should be Times New Roman, and enumerated using Arabic numbers.
  • Identify previously published material by indicating the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption.
  • Footnotes to tables should be identified by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.
  • Caption begins with Figure (in bold) followed by a number and without period. The caption text is 10-point body. The caption ends with a period. It is always located under the figure, centered if shorter than one line, beginning with a paragraph indent if longer. A figure may have parts ((a), (b)) with separate captions. The captions may be centered separately under the parts or run together and set under the entire figure. All figures in one paper should be treated alike, however, and normally the author’s arrangement should be respected. A caption is not required.
  • Figures are cited with abbreviations, e.g., Fig. 3.
  • In-text citations to multipart figures appear as, e.g., “Fig. 3(a).”
  • Change citations such as “in the diagram below” to, e.g., “in Fig. 3.”

Artwork and Illustrations Guidelines

Electronic Figure Submission

  • Supply all figures electronically.
  • Indicate what graphics program was used to create the artwork.
  • For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use TIFF format. MSOffice files are also acceptable.
  • Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.

Line Art

  • Definition: Black and white graphic without shading.
  • Do not use faint lines and/or lettering and verify that all lines and lettering within the figures are legible at the final size.
  • All lines should be at least 0.1 mm (0.3 pt) wide.
  • Scanned line drawings and line drawings in bitmap format should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi.
  • Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.

Color Art

  • Color images free for online publication.
  • If black and white will be shown in the print version, make sure that the main information will still be visible. Many colors become indistinguishable when converted to black and white. A simple way to check this is to make a xerographic copy to see if the necessary distinctions between the different colors are still visible.
  • If the figures are printed in black and white, do not refer to color in the captions.
  • Color illustrations should be submitted as RGB (8 bits per channel).


If you use illustrations that have been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) for both print and online formats. Please be aware that some publishers do not grant electronic rights for free and that JASE-A will not be able to refund any costs that may have occurred to receive these permissions. In such cases, material from other sources should be used.

Ethical Responsibilities of Authors

This journal is committed to upholding the integrity of the scientific record. As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) the journal will follow the COPE guidelines on how to deal with potential acts of misconduct.

Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage confidence in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavor. Maintaining the integrity of the research and its presentation is supported by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include*:

The manuscript should not be submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration. The submitted work should be original and should not have been published in any other form or language (partially or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work. (Please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the concerns about text-recycling (‘self-plagiarism’).

A single study should not be split into multiple parts to increase the number of submissions, and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (i.e. ‘salami-slicing/publishing’).

Concurrent or secondary publication is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. Examples include: translations or a manuscript that is intended for a different group of readers.

Results should be presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation (including image based manipulation). Authors should adhere to discipline-specific rules for acquiring, selecting and processing data.

No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (‘plagiarism’). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks (to indicate words taken from another source) are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions secured for material that is copyrighted.